SKY JUMPERS VERTICAL SPORTS CLUB
6505 Santa Cruz Atascadero, Ca 93422
Phone 1800 652 5201 Fax 1-805 466-8273
Basic Technique Concepts
By Jan Johnson
Olympic Bronze Medalist, Former World record Holder, National Safety Chairman, M.S. Biomechanics
Pole vaulting is really a series of movements which happen in rapid succession. Although many of the movements can be practiced separately, the vault should be viewed as a "motor whole". Each succeeding phase of the vault builds upon those actions which precede it. The final result cannot be as successful as desired unless the earlier phases in its execution have been equally successful in their precision. The athlete should be taught the vault as a simple and basic technique. In this regard the coach should direct the athlete's concentration toward basic fundamentals. This concept holds true for all vaulters no matter their level of performance. From the very best of vaulters to the very worst the practice directives remain the same; the athlete must concentrate on the essential fundamentals.
Pole selection and grip height are two extremely important items in vaulting success. They are related, yet independent of one another. Everything else being equal, the grip the vaulter uses, perhaps more than any other criterion, determines his potential for height. Simply stated, the higher the grip, the greater the potential to vault high. For sure, many vaulters try to hold too high for their speed and planting abilities. However, just as many hold too low when considering these criteria. The important rule of thumb to follow is that each vaulter in each situation has a pole size and hand hold which is right for him. Experience is the best teacher in determining when to change poles or grips . . . so each vaulter must learn for himself the proper time and place to make these adjustments. The following outline should give you some ideas concerning these problems and their solutions.
OBJECTIVE: To develop consistency and speed necessary to get the pole to vertical time after time.
- Do every drill from a specific checkmark.
- Long run vaulting should use a starting mark, 4 or 5-stride check mark, plant check mark, and take-off mark.
- Plant mark and T.O. marks are for the coaches' use. The others are for the athletes.
- The athlete must start his approach the same way each time to produce a consistent step.
- In general, both of the athlete's check marks move toward the box (up) during a headwind and away from the box (back) with a tailwind.
- The more speed a vaulter can generate during the approach, the more potential he has to hold high and push-off above his/her top hand grip.
- The vaulter's posture should be erect, neither leaning forward nor backward during the run up.
- The vaulter should sprint on the balls of his feet, not allowing heels to make contact with the runway except on the take-off step.
- Vaulters foot should contact the ground directly under knee on each stride.
- Relaxation and efficiency are important keys to speed.
- Stretching and chopping both produce slower take-offs.
- Many vaulters limit their potential by not training to improve their sprinting or jumping abilities.
OBJECTIVES: Efficiency and relaxation, which aid approach speed.
- Avoid punching the pole back and forth.
- The distance between the hands should be shoulder distance or slightly (2-3") wider. .
- The higher the grip, the higher the pole tip should be at the beginning of the approach. Grips over 15' should be carried almost vertical. Grips less than 13', nearly horizontal.
- The higher the pole carry, the earlier it should be lowered.
- The vaulter should begin to lower the pole no less than 60' from the box.
- Lowering the pole late causes a late plant.
- Both elbows should be bent approx. 90* during the carry..
- The top hand should be right next to the hip until the plant begins.
- The hands should grip the pole in a relaxed manner with bottom hand thumb under pole acting as a fulcrum.
- Shoulders and hips square to the box.
- Pole tip with-in the vertical plane of shoulders at all times during the approach.
OBJECTIVE: Prepare for take-off, maintain approach speed.
- A good plant begins with a proper carry: bottom hand thumb under pole, elbows bent 90 degrees, pole tip in proper position.
- Shifting the pole on time enables the vaulter to achieve a stronger more efficient take-off.
- The pole should be parallel to the ground as the plant begins.
- A early hand shift enables the vaulter to have his/her hands in higher, more square position at take-off.
- The vaulter should begin pushing the pole forward and up as the next to last take-off foot strikes the ground. I.E., if the vaulter leaves the ground on his/her left foot, then he/she would begin shifting the pole on the left foot contact previous to the take-off left.
- Keep the pole as close to the midline of the body as possible. Avoid "round-housing" the pole.
- Keep shoulders and hips square to the box.
- Both arms should be extended up 100% before the pole strikes the back of
- As the pole enters the box the top hand should be directly over the head
and not vary to either side of the midline of the body.
- A good plant is accomplished with little or no loss in running speed.
- The vaulter must not lean back or stretch his strides during the shift.
- The next to last step should be slightly longer, lower stride, much like a long jumper. The vaulter should have the feeling of running over a compressed next to last step in preparation to jump-up on the take-off step.
- The last stride (T.O. step) should be a short, quick, explosive step in an effort to jump up onto the pole..
OBJECTIVES: Re-direction and conservation of momentum (energy).
- The proper take-off cannot be accomplished without an early, high plant.
- Jump up at take-off in the direction the pole is about to go . . . try to help the pole rise to vertical by jumping up into it.
- The proper take-off must be aggressive.
- Push up with both arms, in an attempt to make your take-off angle as high as possible.
- Apply pressure to the pole in a upward direction with your bottom arm, while holding on and hanging with your top arm. Do not attempt to pull your-self up at this point in the vault.
- The pole should not jerk the vaulter on his back; he should stay right side up--and not try to rock back.
- Try to make the transition off the ground as smoothly as possible but in an aggressive manner.
- The vaulter should control the pole, rather than be controlled by it.
- The key to holding high is in the plant and take-off.
- The ideal take-off spot is directly below or slightly (12") inside the top hand.
- The faster the speed at take-off, the greater the potential to hold high and push-off the top of the vault over the top hand.
- The stronger the jump-up off the ground, the smoother the transition onto the pole.
- The vaulter chest should drive forward and up into the direction the pole is going as the vaulter leaves the ground.
OBJECTIVE: To momentarily delay the trail-leg swing, thus enabling the pole to begin to rise to vertical more efficently.
- Keep pushing up with bottom arm.
- Keep head down- chin to chest - watch box if necessary. \
- Keep trail leg straight and long.
- Hold take-off leg back; toward runway, don't allow it to sweep through.
- Keep chest and bellybutton out in front (swing position).
- The hang should be viewed as a momentary hesitation of body rotation just after the vaulter leaves the ground.
SWING TO PIKE
OBJECTIVE: Create internal forward and upward momentum that will conserve pole speed and get the vaulters body into position to extend up along top of pole during extension.
- Sweep trail leg from behind hips forward and up around axis at hips.
- Continue to push up with bottom arm.
- Bring chin up off chest and start to focus on a point slightly in front of the bar.
- The trail leg (pendulum leg) should be straight so that it describes the longest radius possible into a pike position with hips low and feet over hands.
- The swing may also be viewed as a two stage action whereby he first swings; the trail leg first down and forward from the hang position into the pike position, and then; up into the feet above hands with hips low position.
- The vaulter may find it helpful to think of kicking the trail leg first down and then around a circle into a pike position.
- "Rowing" the hands forward while swinging the trail leg. This pressurizing of the pole will help speed the swing, and reposition the hands over the shoulders in a better position for the extension phase.
PIKE, AND EXTENSION
OBJECTIVE: To use the energy created from the forward swing and direct it upward by shortening the radius of the body.
- Bottom arm now offers less resistance (it may begin to flex slightly).
- Axis of body's rotation shifts from hips to shoulders.
- The vaulter should flex at his hips as tightly as possible.
- The pike speeds the up-sing tremendously.
- The low hip position of the pike helps enable pole rotation , while the energy from the swing keeps the vaulter turning upside down toward the extension phase with power.
OBJECTIVES: Getting the body totally inverted and keeping momentum going up.
- Continue to rotate around shoulder axis (force them back).
- As pole unbends, allow bottom arm to collapse inside the pole
- The legs should extend upward along top arm in a powerful motion.
- The top arm should not pull. It should just hold on and hang.
- The vaulter should never throw the head back, but rather drop shoulders back while driving legs and hips up.
- Try to shoot hips and legs into vertical position so that top hand hits right thigh as pole nears final stages of unbending.
- Try to keep feet going straight up over top hand as pole is unbending.
- Try to delay turn while driving hips higher.
TURN AND PULL
OBJECTIVE: To pull body up in upside down position without dropping feet while turning over.
- Stay close to pole.
- Bottom hand should come right by face as turn begins.
- Keep feet together.
- Cross outside over inside foot to start turn.
- Also turn head in direction of turn.
- Keep head in neutral position..
- Keep shoulders back and feet going up.
- The arm pull should start from the mid thigh or crotch area and should follow along the body.
- Pulling motion with arms should be quick and vigorous.
- Stay on back; don't rush the turn.
OBJECTIVE: For safe, successful vaulting and proper technique, the pole must get to vertical before the vaulter pushes off.
- To learn vertical pole timing, the standards must be at least 18" back.
- VauIting is safer when the pole gets to vertical.
- The vaulter can keep his feet going more vertically during the pull and turn when he knows the pole is going to get to vertical.
- It is easier to raise the grip when the pole is getting to vertical.
OBJECTIVES: To push straight down the pole and leave the bar on the pegs.
- Drop feet after they cross the bar.
- See the bar as you go over.
- Do not try to rush over the bar.
- Keep chest and body concave. Keep head down. Stay "hollow".
- Bottom hand should let go of the pole first, as top hand completes push-off.
- Turn over and keep pole near top hand shoulder so that it is mechanically easier to push aggressively at the box for the final clearance.
- Push directly down pole at the box.
- The pole should always get to vertical before the vaulter gets off.
- Standard placement of approximately 18" is recommended.
OBJECTIVE: To vault on the proper size pole; which allows the vaulter the proper technique and grip height.
- Factors which influence appropriate pole stiffness: plant technique, T.O. speed, grip height, strength, body weight, and aggressiveness.
- The proper size pole is a must for performing the proper technique.
- Vaulters will require stiffer poles as they improve.
- Proper pole size allows the vaulter to hold his maximum grip.
- In most cases of too much pole speed, where the pole is not over-bending, A vaulter should first try to correct by raising his grip, and if that does not work, then move to a stiffer pole.
- Stiffer poles are usually the result of higher grips, not vice-versa.
- Stiffer poles give greater resistance to vertical pole, and are therefor more difficult to make the pit on.
OBJECTIVE: To hold the highest grip individual physical abilities will allow and perform a consistent, safe, efficient vault.
- If the pole is not over-bending and the technique is sound, the vaulter should raise his grip when he is landing deep in the pit.
- By and large higher grips result in stiffer poles, not vice-versa.
- Grip height is a result of the following: speed at T.O., plant and T.O. technique, hang and swing timing, amount of bend, strength, proper pole stiffness.
- The higher the grip, the greater the potential to vault high.
- Gripping to high for one's ability will yield poor efficiency at the top of the vault.
OBJECTIVE: A safe, even bend, that will produce the optium grip height and consistent jump.
- The more the pole bends, the shorter the top hand radius around its tip in the box.
- The shorter the top hand radius, the higher the vaulter can hold.
- Vaulters can grip higher on a bending pole then a non-bending pole, because the top hand radius is shorter.
- Different styles of take-offs produce different bend characteristics.
- Some bend characteristics tend to break poles more than others (explained below).
- Slow bending and unbending poles produce less energy at the top of the vault and thus poor clearance efficiency.
OBJECTIVE: To avoid breaking poles by understanding the circumstances which break poles.
- Most poles break because they are damaged through abuse by the vaulter.
- Poles cannot be "warmed up".
- Poles do not need to be "broken in".
- Late or low plants cause vaulters to jump on poles too soft for their body weight and/or T.O. speed.
- A pole held lower cannot be bent as much without breaking than a pole held higher - yardstick rule.
- Vaulters who leave the ground with a smooth, high plant and T.O. style seem less apt to break poles.
- Vaulters who "muscle" the plant, plant late, or take-off way inside the top hand (24") seem to be more apt to break poles.
- At the first hint of overbending, the vaulter should move to a stiffer pole or lower the grip and shorten the run.
- Over-bending or breaking a pole is quite often a sign of take-off improvement.
OBJECTIVE: To develop techniques and select poles and hand grips which result in the generation of the appropriate amount of pole speed on a consistent basis.
- Pole speed is the result of many the same things as grip height and pole stiffness.
- Too much pole speed (pole going past vertical) is a good problem because it means the vaulter is doing things right and can raise his grip.
- Too little pole speed (pole not getting to vertical) is a serious problem because it is dangerous and it limits the vaulter's chances for success.
- Too little pole speed may be caused by any one or combination of the following: late plant, low plant, pole too stiff, pole too soft, slowing down at box, rocking back too soon, leaning back at the box, pole not bending enough, grip too high, grip too low.
OBJECTIVE: To compare and contrast the styles of two elite vaults.
- Both vaulters plant high, take-off directly under top hand, drag trail-leg, have passive lead knees.
- They also collapse bottom arm elbow inside pole prior to turn, have deep standard placement.
TOP FIGURE HIGHLIGHT DIFFERENCES:
- Applying more resistance to pole with arms at take-off. (fig. 3-5).
- Keeping hips low prior to pike (Fig. 6), (Fig. 7).
BOTTOM FIGURE HIGHLIGHT DIFFERENCES:
- Allows bottom arm to collapse slightly (Fig. 3-4).
- Pushes bottom arm back out (Fig. 5).
- Right foot moves up outside top hand to get center of gravity behind hands (Fig. 10).
Bail out - Aborting a jump sometime after take-off and going under the cross bar; usually the result of a bad take-off.
Blocking out- Descriptive term where the vaulter stiff- arms the pole at take-off in such a way that it blocks the chest drive.
Big bottom arm - Bottom arm which does not collapse at take-off. The result of a very good plant.
Check mark - A point or points on the runway that when stepped on with the intended foot, produce the correct step at take-off.
Chopping - Shortening the strides during the final stages of the approach, causing the vaulter to slow down.
Drive - The last strides of the approach and the application of force into the pole at take-off.
Extension - The active upward extension of the legs and hips just after the rock back as the vaulter gets into the upside down position, just prior to the pull and turn. (Fig. 9-10)
Fiber head - Type of plant in which the pole nearly touches the forehead just after take-off. The result of allowing the
bottom arm to collapse too much.
Getting ripped - getting "jerked" or yanked off the ground in an inefficient manner as the result of a poor plant.
Go for it Throw caution to the wind.
Grip height- - The distance from the bottom of the pole to the top of the top hand.
Gripper - A vaulter who holds the pole high relative to his competitors.
Hairball jump - A dangerous or out of control jump.
Hang - That stage of the vault just after take-off where the vaulter tries to slow his body's rotation (stay right-side up), thus allowing the pole to bend and rise to vertical more efficiently.
Hang and tucker - A vaulter who stays down a long time and then tucks hard to produce a fast rock back late in the jump.
Heavy jammer - A vaulter with exceptionally good plant and take-off.
Heel runner - A vaulter who sprints on his heels.
Hoe-daddy - A vaulter who is afraid to take-off or rock-back for psychological reasons.
Jump-hit - Jumping off the ground before the pole hits the back of the box. Usually an out jumper.
Soft side - That side of pole to which it bends the easiest. Usually the warp side or label side.
Stalling out - Excessive loss of pole speed preventing the pole from rising to vertical and causing the vaulter to land in the front of the pit or on the runway.
Staying down - Pushing through the pole with the bottom arm and dragging the pendulum leg or both legs during the early portions of the jump so as not to get into the rock back position (past the pole) too soon, thus allowing the pole to bend and rise to vertical more easily.
Stoked - The feeling of excitement after a great jump.
Stretching - Lengthening the strides during the final stages of the approach, causing the vaulter to slow down.
Stride cadence - The rate at which the vaulter takes strides.
Swing - The actions of the body during the pole bending stage, just after the hang. The sweeping of the trail leg forward and up.
Swinger - Style of jumping -here vaulter allows legs to hang behind hips after take-off to slow body's rotation.
Take-off - That phase of a vault when the vaulter leaves the ground.
Take-off angle - The angle of the pole relative to the runway at the instant of take-off. The higher this angle, the better.
Take-off mark - That point as measured from the back of the box from which the vaulter leaves the ground. Also called the "step".
Take-off step - That step with which the vaulter leaves the ground.
Trail leg - The leg the vaulter jumps off the ground with. Also called the pendulum leg.
True axis - Also called "real axis", the axis described by the vaulter's hands as they move around the tip of the pole in the box.
Tuck - That phase of the vault when the vaulter pulls his bent knees into his chest to shorten his body's rotation and speed his rock back.
Under jumper - A vaulter who is more comfortable taking-off from inside the vertical line from his top hand to the ground at the instant of take-off.
Underbending - Not bending the pole enough to execute proper technique.
Late plant - When the plant begins later than two strides from the box.
Levering away - Not allowing the bottom am elbow to collapse inside the pole during the extension phase; resulting in an incomplete extension prior to the turn and pull.
Low plant - When the arms are not fully extended overhead at the take-off, creating a low take-off angle.
Muscler - A vaulter who relies on upper body strength rather than technique for success. Probably not vaulting up to potential.
No boy - No.
Off the wall - Landing back on the runway after stalling out.
Out jumper - A vaulter who leaves the ground outside the vertical line from his top hand to the ground at the instant of take-off -usually a "jump-hitter".
Overbending - Bending the pole too much for grip height.
Over striding - Taking strides too long during the approach, resulting in an under take-off and/or slo. take-off.
Past the pole - That point in the jump when the center of gravity passes the true axis of the pole.
Penetration - Getting in the pit (pole to vertical).
Penultimate step - The next to last step prior to take-off.
Plant - Those motions which bring the pole from the hip position during the approach to the overhead position of the take-off.
Plant check mark - A coach's check mark; that distance from the box -here the plant step occurs (3 steps or 2 strides).
Plant step - That foot during the approach on which the plant begins three steps from take-off.
Pole speed - The speed which the pole rises to vertical.
Pull and turn - The twisting and pulling motion at top of the vault.
Rowing- The action of pulling the pole forward during the swing phase so that the hands are directly over the shoulders.
Rock back - The movements of the vaulter during the unbending stages where the vaulter raises his hips above his shoulders.
Run-through - Full speed approach without taking-off to determine if check marks are valid.
Settle step - Next to last step prior to take-off (penultimate) , vaulter lowers center of gravity to prepare for jump off the ground. Basic Technique Concepts
Understriding - Taking strides which are too short, resulting in a slow -and/or out take-off.
Vertical pole - The highest point to which the pole can rise during a vault (90 degrees to perpendicular to the runway) . This is a must for successful and safe pole vaulting.
Wired - When everything works just right.
Yea boy - Yes.
VAULTERS' TECHNIQUE AND KNOWLEDGE TEST
1. With a tail wind the vaulter:
a. gains pole speed b. loses pole speed
c. should have a faster approach d. can hold higher
e. all except b a &c
2. In pole vaulting take-off speed
a. not important b. very important
c. hurt by pole size d. the result of runway speed
e. b & d and jumping ability f. c & d
3. Which of the following is considered by most experts to be the most important phase of the vault:
a. rock-back b. plant
c. clearance d. pull
e. hang f. turn
4. The correct pole plant begins:
a. one step from T.O. b. two steps from T.O.
c. three steps from T.O. d. four steps from T.O.
e. none of the above
5. The correct pole plant begins:
a. as the plant foot strikes the ground d. all of the above
b. before the plant foot strikes the ground e. none o f the above
c. after the plant foot strikes the ground
6. The plant foot for right handed vaulters is:
a. right foot b. left foot c.either foot
7. In the correct plant the vaulter:
a. curls the pole to the side and up d. should see the bar
b. pushes the pole forward and up e. deaccelerates slightly
c. keeps his arms slightly bent at T.O. to absorb shock f. pulls with the top arm
8. The vaulter's T.O. foot should be:
a. as close as possible to the box b. as far away as possible from the box
c. 12 . - 24' inside the top hand d. directly under the top hand
e. directly under the bottom hand f. none of the above
9. When getting on a stiffer pole for the first time, the vaulter should:
a. raise his grip 1" for each pound of increase in stiffness b. raise grip 2" - 3"
c. lower grip 2' - 3' d. keep grip same
e. move hands closer together f. a & e
10. The vaulter will lose pole speed by:
a. lowering the pole too late during approach b. late plant
c. late rock-back d. slowing down at plant
e. pushing with bottom arm at plant f. all except c & e
11. The swing-up may be aided by the proper:
a. plant b. hang
c. tuck d. pole size
e. grip height f. all of the above
12. The take-off angle is the:
a.Distance from the top hand to the cross bar. b.Distance from the T.O. toe to the box. c.Distance from T.O. toe to top hand. d.Is always the same for each vaulter.
13. Immediately after leaving the ground, the vaulter should:
a. try to rock back d. tuck
b. try to stay right side up e. none of the above
C. throw the head back f. a & d
14. During the swing phase of the vault the vaulter should try to:
a. speed his body's rotation d. - let the bottom arm collapse
b. pull with the top arm e. swing the legs around axis of the hips c & d
c. slow his body's rotation f .a & d
15. During the hang phase, the vaulter is trying to keep his weight behind the pole and low so that:
a. he may rock back earlier d. b & c
b. the pole may rotate to vertical e. a & b
c. he may rock back and avoid stalling out f. a & c
16. During the rock-back phase, the vaulter tucks with his legs and hips so that he may:
a. get back sooner d. slow his rotation
b. speed his rotation e. b & c
c. get back faster f. a & b
17. The vaulter may keep the pole bending during the rock-back phase by:
a. pushing with the bottom arm d. dropping the head back
b. pulling with the top arm e. b & d
c. keeping trail leg straight f. a & b
18. During the final steps prior to take-off, the vaulter should:
a. speed up d. shorten last step slightly
b. lean back to aid rocking motion e. all of the above
c. lower C.G. on penultimate step f. a, c, & d
19. In most cases the more the pole bends:
a. the higher it "throws" the vaulter b. the easier it is to make the pit
c. the easier it is to hold higher d. the shorter the pole axis of rotation
e. all of the above f. all except a
20. Serge Bubka was reported to have run what time for 100m?
a. 10.3 d. 10.5
b. 10.7 e. 12.3
c. 9.87 f. none of the above
21. The real advantage of using a fiberglass pole is:
a. the catapulting effect d. higher carry
b. higher grip e. wider hand spread
c. easier plant f. a & b
22. Given the same grip, which of the following examples yields the shortest top hand radius?
a. b. 20° c. 40° d. 60° e. 80° 100°
21. During the extension phase, the vaulter should:
a. get the bottom arm elbow inside the pole d. throw the head back
b . drop the shoulders further back e. all of the above
c. keep the feet going straight up f. all except d
24. By extending the legs and hips in a strong upward motion prior to the turn, the vaulter may:
a. help the T.O. d. stall out
b. lose control of the turn phase e. help pole speed
c. shoot-out at the bar and extension f. b & c
25. Pole speed is a result of the following:
a. grip height c. pole stiffness e. rock-back timing
b. plant d. bottom arm resistance f. all of the above
26. In relation to the back of the box, which is the best standard placement?
a. 12' in front c. 12' behind e. 20* behind
b. even d. 15* behind f. any of the above
27. Not enough pole speed may cause the vaulter to:
a. hit the bar going up d. land in the box
b. hit the bar coming down e. all of the above
c. go under the bar f. all except a
28. Too much pole speed may cause the vaulter to:
a. see to not rock-back enough d. land in the box
b. hit t he bar going up e. all except d
c. turn sideways over the bar f. all except c and d
29. Which of the following is a must for proper technique?
a. getting the pole to vertical d. early tuck
b. using a pole 10 lbs. over body weight e. early rock-back
c. a proper flyaway f. a & e
30- The best way to correct too much pole speed is to:
a. rock-back sooner d. get on a stiffer pole
b. slow down the run e. swing sooner
c. raise the grip f. lower the grip
31. Most of the world class jumpers today are holding at least:
a. 13-6 c. 15-6 e. 17-6
b. 14-6 d. 16-6 f.18-6
32. The problem of not landing in the center of the pit may be caused by?
a. Too much grip d. all of the above
b. Too soft a pole e.
c. Poor plant f.
33. Which of the following conditions represents a 15' vault:
a. 13' grip 2'8' push off d. all of the above
b. 14' grip 1'8' push off e. none of the above
c. 15' grip 8' push off f. a & c
TRUE AND FALSE
T F 1. Vaulters should first learn basic technique with no bend in the pole.
T F 2. In a head-wind, the vaulter should go to a stiffer pole.
T F 3. The vaulter should attempt to keep bending the pole by pulling with the top arm and pushing with the bottom during rock-back.
T F 4. The vaulter who resists too long with the bottom arm will not extend properly.
T F 5. The vaulter should attempt to pull down as he leaves the ground.
T F 6. Pole speed is the speed at which the pole straightens.
T F 7. Some world class vaulters would prefer to have their standards as far as 3 feet behind the box.
T F 8. To achieve a good flyaway the vaulter must push-off the pole before it rises to vertical.
T F 9. Too much pole speed is better than too little for raising the grip. -
T F 10. Take-off speed is the energy which makes the pole rise to vertical.
T F 11. Softer poles offer more resistance to penetration.
T F 12. Pole speed, grip, pole size and T.O. speed are interrelated.
T F 13. 17' grip and 3'8' push-off - 20' vault.
T F 14. Sometimes vaulting poles break.
T F 15. Throwing your head back helps you get up side down.
T F 16. The bending pole allows a higher grip.
T F 17. Swing speed and pole speed have no relationship.
T F 18. Faster vaulters should be able to hold higher.
T F 19. Gymnastics ability is an advantage in vaulting.
T F 20. A large amount of pole vaulting technique may be learned from imitative drills and exercises.
T F 21. The vaulter who runs on his heels or leans back during the final strides is slowing down.
T F 22. The axis of the pole is the speed at which the vaulter rocks back.
T F 21. Grip height has no relationship to vault height.
T F 24. Jumping up at take-off is a bad habit because it could cause slowing down.
T F 25. Grip height and clearance efficiency are not related.
ANSWERS TO TEST QUESTIONS
1-e, 2-e. 3-b, 4-b, 5-a, 6-b, 7-b 8-d, 9-d, 10-f, 11-f, 12-c, 13-b, 14-e. 15-d. 16-e, 17-a, 18-f, 19-f, 20-a, 21-b, 22-f, 23-f, 24-e, 25-f. 26-e. 27-e. 28-e, 29-a, 30-c, 31-C, 32-d, 33-d
True and False
1-T, 2-F, 3-F, 4-T, 5-F. 6-F, 7-T, 8-F, 9-T, 10-T, 11-F. 12-T, 13-T, 14-T, 15-F, 16-T, 17-F, 18-T, 19-T, 20-T, 21-T, 22-F, 23-F, 24-T, 25-F